The MIRA guides the systematic collection, organization and analysis of secondary and primary data. It informs and supports the design of subsequent needs assessments and analysis which are often more detailed and operational in focus.
In a protracted crisis the consolidated analysis of the needs of affected people is presented in a Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) either instead of, or subsequent to, a MIRA.
The MIRA is also best applied to inform strategic-level decisions under tight deadlines.
The Multi-Cluster/Sector Initial Rapid Assessment (MIRA) is a joint needs assessment tool that can be used in sudden onset emergencies, including IASC System-Wide level 3 Emergency Responses (L3 Responses). It is a precursor to cluster/sectoral needs assessments and provides a process for collecting and analyzing information on affected people and their needs to inform strategic response planning.
A Flash Appeal is used to provide an initial joint analysis of situation change, briefly outline priority actions and initial funding requirements (estimates) and highlight the plan for the scale-up of the response.
A Flash Appeal is issued three-five days after a sudden-onset emergency and if/when the HC and HCT determine a need in protracted or slow onset crises facing a significant and unforeseen ‘spike’ in needs or a change in the context, with the emphasis being on timeliness.
The data used to inform humanitarian response planning typically comes from a joint, multi cluster/sector needs assessment. This may come in the form of a MIRA, a Multi-Cluster/Sector Initial Rapid Assessment or a joint needs assessment. Note: no organization is considered the owner of this data; it should be available to all stakeholders.
The development of the humanitarian response plan is led by the Humanitarian Coordinator, is managed by the Humanitarian Country Team, supported by an inter-cluster/sector coordination group and clusters/sectors and includes a broad range of actors, including at the sub-national level with the participation of people affected by the crisis.