Every Humanitarian Country Team will develop a planning calendar suited to their needs. The planning timeframe is flexible and can start at any point in the year.
In general by September a Humanitarian Needs Overview is developed. This then informs the development of the Humanitarian Response Plan (November but as agreed by the HCT). The Global Appeal is launched in December.
The frequency of response monitoring and reporting is determined by the HCT as well but the guidance recommends response monitoring and reporting on a quarterly basis, which should be used to adjust planning documents as necessary.
The Operational Peer Review (OPR) is an internal, inter-agency management tool utilized within 90 days of the declaration of a level 3 emergency. It is forward looking, helping Humanitarian Coordinators (HCs) and Humanitarian Country Teams (HCTs) determine whether they need to adjust or improve the collective humanitarian response in order to meet its objectives or reduce gaps. Generally, the review focuses on four areas:
- leadership arrangements;
- implementation of the other elements of the humanitarian programme cycle, namely coordinated assessments, strategic response planning, resource mobilization, implementation and monitoring;
- coordination mechanisms;
- mechanisms of accountability to affected people.
An operational peer review is not a real-time evaluation, and it is not meant to measure results or the impact of the response. It is meant to be a light, brief process intended as a “course corrector” for the particular response being reviewed.
In the case of protracted crisis a Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) is produced. A HNO is a consolidation and analysis of existing secondary data, inclusive of the NGO needs assessments, joint and cluster needs assessments.
The humanitarian needs overview describes the overall humanitarian dimensions of a crisis situation including the key humanitarian issues which are considered the most pressing by common agreement. It is based on existing information (secondary data) derived from multi-cluster and sectorial assessments, monitoring data, survey results and contextual judgment by humanitarian actors and of local sources such as government, community bodies and representative from affected communities. The HNO is informed by shared and collated data and the development of a joint needs analysis.
Multi-sector Initial Rapid Assessment (MIRA) is used in rapid onset natural disasters to collect primary and secondary community level data to support initial decision making at the beginning of a crisis.
MIRAs occur when a disaster first strikes. The Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) on the other hand is a consolidation and synthesis of recent data on a crisis that occurs either a) after a MIRA is completed or b) on an annual basis as a precursor to the development of a strategic response plan (SRP).