In a protracted crisis the consolidated analysis of the needs of affected people is presented in a Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) either instead of, or subsequent to, a MIRA.
The MIRA is also best applied to inform strategic-level decisions under tight deadlines.
A Flash Appeal is issued three-five days after a sudden-onset emergency and if/when the HC and HCT determine a need in protracted or slow onset crises facing a significant and unforeseen ‘spike’ in needs or a change in the context, with the emphasis being on timeliness.
The data used to inform humanitarian response planning typically comes from a joint, multi cluster/sector needs assessment. This may come in the form of a MIRA, a Multi-Cluster/Sector Initial Rapid Assessment or a joint needs assessment. Note: no organization is considered the owner of this data; it should be available to all stakeholders.
The development of the humanitarian response plan is led by the Humanitarian Coordinator, is managed by the Humanitarian Country Team, supported by an inter-cluster/sector coordination group and clusters/sectors and includes a broad range of actors, including at the sub-national level with the participation of people affected by the crisis.
Every Humanitarian Country Team will develop a planning calendar suited to their needs. The planning timeframe is flexible and can start at any point in the year.
In general by September a Humanitarian Needs Overview is developed. This then informs the development of the Humanitarian Response Plan (November but as agreed by the HCT). The Global Appeal is launched in December.
The frequency of response monitoring and reporting is determined by the HCT as well but the guidance recommends response monitoring and reporting on a quarterly basis, which should be used to adjust planning documents as necessary.
The Operational Peer Review (OPR) is an internal, inter-agency management tool utilized within 90 days of the declaration of a level 3 emergency. It is forward looking, helping Humanitarian Coordinators (HCs) and Humanitarian Country Teams (HCTs) determine whether they need to adjust or improve the collective humanitarian response in order to meet its objectives or reduce gaps. Generally, the review focuses on four areas:
- leadership arrangements;
- implementation of the other elements of the humanitarian programme cycle, namely coordinated assessments, strategic response planning, resource mobilization, implementation and monitoring;
- coordination mechanisms;
- mechanisms of accountability to affected people.
An operational peer review is not a real-time evaluation, and it is not meant to measure results or the impact of the response. It is meant to be a light, brief process intended as a “course corrector” for the particular response being reviewed.
Yes. For instance the 2014-2016 Sahel Humanitarian Response Plan includes both the regional response plan as well as country plans for the nine countries included in the regional response.